Sire Evaluation Data Return to Main

Expected Progeny Difference (EPD) - The difference in performance to be expected from future progeny of the sire, compared with that expected from future progeny of the average bull in the same test. EPD is an estimate based on progeny testing and is equal to one-half the estimate of breeding value obtainable from the progeny test records. EPD's for growth traits are generally expressed in pounds, either as a plus difference or minimum difference from the population average. EPD's are generally reported in the units of measure of that trait. (Ex. pounds, cm., percent, etc.)

Accuracy (Acc) - The reliability that can be placed on the expected progeny difference (EPD). An accuracy of close to 1.0 indicates higher reliability.

Interim Expected Progeny Differences (I) - If an EPD has an "I" to the left of the plus or minus pound value for this trait, then this value is an interim EPD. Interim EPD numbers are an estimate of the genetic merit of a young animal based upon sire and dam EPD's (if known) and the young animal's individual performance record. Interim EPD's are computed for young animals not included in the most recent national cattle evaluation.

Back Solution EPD (BKS) - An EPD that is calculated using an animal's own performance figures, as compared to its contemporaries.
Pedigree Estimate (PE) - An EPD that is calculated by taking half of the EPD value from each parent for a particular trait and adding them together. The resulting EPD has no accuracy value associated with it; therefore it is low in predictability.

Birth Weight EPD (BW) - Calf weight at birth adjusted to a mature dam equivalent. Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds. The EPD value predicts the difference in average birth weight of a bull's calves compared to calves of all other bulls evaluated. A positive value (+) indicates heavier-than-average birth weights, while a negative value (-) indicates lighter-than-average birth weights.

Calving Ease EPD (CE) (Direct) - The ease with which a bull's calves are born to first-calf heifers. A first-calf heifer is defined as a female calving for the first time at 33 months of age or less. Expected progeny differences are reported as deviations in the percent-unassisted births. When comparing calving ease EPD's of two sires, the larger EPD indicates a higher percent of unassisted births for calves sired by this bull.

Weaning Weight EPD (WW) - A sire's expected progeny difference (lb.) for 205-day, mature dam equivalent weaning weight. A sire's weaning weight EPD is an indication of growth to weaning. It does not indicate milk production.
Yearling Weight EPD (YW) - A sire's expected progeny difference (lb.) for 365-day, mature dam equivalent yearling weight.

Yearling Height EPD (YH) - A predictor, expressed in inches, of a sire's ability to transmit yearling height.

Maternal Milk EPD (MM) - The maternal ability of a bull's daughters. Expected progeny performance is expressed in pounds of calf weaning weight. The EPD value predicts the difference (due to maternal ability) in average 205-day weight of a bull's daughters calves compared to calves of all other bulls evaluated.

Maternal Weaning Weight (MWW), Total Maternal (TM), Combined Milk Value (CV), Milk & Growth (M&G) EPD's - The weaning weight of a bull's daughter's calves. Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds. The EPD value predicts the difference in average 205-day weight of a bull's daughter's calves compared to calves from daughters of other bulls evaluated. The evaluation reflects both the maternal ability of a bull's daughters, and the growth potential of their calves.

Adjusted Weaning Weight (WW) -
An unshrunk, off the cow weight adjusted to 205 days of age and to mature-dam age equivalence.

Adjusted Yearling Weight (YW) - An unshrunk weight adjusted to 365 days of age.

Birth Weight (BW) - The weight of a calf taken within 24 hours of birth.

Double Polled Pedigree (DP) - Both parents of the individual are polled. A double polled pedigree does not assure that the animal is homozygous, but only increases the chances of being homozygous.
Frame Score (FS) - A score based on subjective evaluation of height or actual measurement of hip height. This score is related to slaughter weights at which cattle should attain a given quality grade or attain a given amount of fat thickness.

Heterozygous - Genes of a specific pair (alleles) are different in an individual (ex. Aa).

Homozygous - Genes of a specific pair (alleles) are alike in an individual (ex. aa or AA).

Homozygous Black (HB) - These bulls have a 99.9% probability of being homozygous black, having been test mated to red and heterozygous black cows. You should expect these bulls to sire black calves when mated to red or black cows.
Homozygous Polled (HP) - Bulls have a 99.9% probability of being homozygous polled, having been test mated to horned or heterozygous polled cows. You should expect these bulls to sire all polled calves.

Non Dilutor - These cattle do not carry the dilution gene. The dilution gene causes a black hair coat to be gray and a red coat to be yellow.

Polled/Scurred (P/S) - Individuals who are polled with scurs.

Scrotal Circumference (SC) - A measure of testes size obtained by measuring the distance around the testicles in the scrotum with a circular tape.
Mature Daughter Evaluation

Mature Daughter Weight EPD (MWT) - A predictor for the difference in mature size of a sire's daughters expressed in pounds.

Mature Daughter Height EPD (MHT) - A predictor of the difference in mature daughter height of a sire's daughters expressed in inches.

Maternal Calving Ease EPD (MCE) - The ease with which a sire's daughters calve as first-calf heifers. Expected progeny differences are reported as deviations in the percent-unassisted births.

Stayability EPD (STAY) - The expressed difference in probability of daughters staying in the herd to at least six (6) years of age. Since cows are usually only culled for being open before 6 years, the EPD is primarily a measure of sustained fertility and structural soundness.

Most Probable Producing Ability EPD (MPPA) - An estimate of a cow's future productivity for a trait (such as progeny weaning weight ratio) based on past productivity.
Scrotal Circumference Evaluation

Scrotal Circumference EPD (SC) - A predictor, expressed in centimeters, of the difference in transmitting ability for scrotal size.

Ultrasound Body Composition

Intramuscular Fat EPD (%IMF) - A predictor of the difference in a sire's progeny for percent intramuscular fat in the rib eye muscle compared to an average sire.

Rib Eye Area EPD (REA) - A predictor for the difference in square inches of rib eye area of a sire's progeny compared to the progeny of an average sire.

Fat Thickness EPD (FAT) - Expressed in inches, is a predictor of the difference in external fat thickness at the 12" and 13" ribs of a sire's progeny compared to the progeny of an average sire.

Percent Retail Product EPD (%RP) - A predictor of the difference in pounds of saleable retail product of a sire's progeny compared to the progeny of an average sire.
Carcass Evaluation

Carcass Weight EPD (WT) - A predictor, expressed in pounds, of the differences in hot carcass weight of a sire's progeny at a given end point.

Marbling EPD (MARB) - An expression, as a fraction, of the differences in a subjective USDA marbling score of a sire's progeny at a given end point.

Fat Thickness EPD (FAT) - A predictor, expressed in inches, of the differences in fat thickness of a sire's progeny, between the 12" and 13" ribs, at a given end point.

Percent Retail Product EPD (%RP) (Angus) - A predictor of the difference in pounds of saleable retail product of a given sire's progeny m compared to the progeny of an average sire in the breed.

Percent Retail Cuts EPD (%RC) (Simmental) - An estimate of the yield of closely trimmed, boneless retail cuts from the round, loin, rib and chuck. Expected progeny performance is reported in percent and adjusted to a slaughter age of 475 days.